Physical Education and Athletics
at Phillips Academy, Andover


Published by Phillips Academy, Andover


dustcover information:

FRED H. HARRISON is a graduate of Phillips Academy and Yale and was a star performer in football, hockey, and baseball at both these institutions. After graduation from Yale in 1942, he joined the army and served as an artillery battery commander under General George Patton in the European Theater, winning the Bronze Star and Army Commendation medals. After the war he joined the staff of the Berkshire School in Sheffield, MA, as Athletic Director and Instructor in English and at the same time pursued graduate studies at Trinity College, Hartford, where he received an M.A. in 1950. In 1952 he returned to Andover as Instructor in English and History and three years later was appointed Director of Athletics, a position he held until 1977. During his years as Director he modernized the School's athletic program, expanded the number of sports offered, presided over the construction of a new gymnasium and an artificial hockey rink, served as head coach of hockey and baseball, and more recently adapted the School's physical education and athletic program to coeducation. When he retired, he turned over to his successor one of the finest programs and plants in the country.

In 1967 he was named one of 25 Silver Anniversary All-Americans by Sports Illustrated magazine and in 1981 was elected to the Massachusetts Hockey Coaches Hall of Fame. He was the founder of the Pee-Wee Hockey Program in the town of Andover and for years has been active in the local YMCA and other community programs. In June 1983, he retires from Phillips Academy and with his wife Marjorie will live in North Carolina.


To Marjorie, Midge, Nancy, and Beth



Foreword by Frederick S. Allis,Jr.
I. Piety and Health
II. The Hard-Ball Game
III. Early Football
IV. Health and Physical Education
V. Growing Pains
VI. Andover and Exeter: The Growth of a Rivalry
VII. Professionalism and Faculty Control
VIII. Alfred E. Stearns and Peirson S. Page
IX. The Andover Plan
X. The Game's the Thing
XI. New Facilities, 1920-1939
XII. The Triple Threat
XIII. The War Years and Their Aftermath

XIV. Athletics For All
XV. Coeducation
Appendix: Record of Andover-Exeter Contests



WHEN, in the early 1970's, plans were being formulated for the Bicentennial of Phillips Academy in 1978, there was general agreement that a new history of the school should be written as part of the celebration of the coming event. Dr. Claude M. Fuess's excellent history of the Academy entitled An Old New England School, published in 1917, was obviously out of date and was, in addition, out of print. I was asked to write the proposed history, but it soon became clear to all of us concerned with the project that to try to cram everything that had happened at Phillips Academy in 200 years into one volume would be inadvisable, if not impossible. Accordingly, it was eventually decided to publish four books about the academy's past: a general history, which I would write; a history of Abbot Academy, which merged with Phillips Academy in 1973; a history of athletics and physical education at the school; and finally a financial history. My book, Youth from Every Quarter, and my colleague Susan M. Lloyd's book on Abbot entitled A Singular School were both published in 1979. This volume, Athletics for All, by my colleague Fred H. Harrison, is the third in the series. The fourth on the school's financial history remains to be written.

Why, one may ask, was it thought necessary to publish a separate volume on Andover athletics and physical education? There are several answers to this question. First and foremost, the story is well worth telling on its own merits, all the more so because there is such a wealth of material on the subject in the archives of Phillips Academy, the records of the Athletic Department, and the school publications over the years. Secondly, as Dr. Fuess's history demonstrated, to attempt to include an account of athletics and physical education in a general volume presented serious problems: near the end of his book Dr. Fuess devoted three chapters to athletics and physical education, but they really did not do justice to the subject, and, furthermore, they interrupted the flow of his general narrative. With another sixty years of athletic history having transpired since Dr. Fuess wrote, including some of the most important developments in the present program, a separate volume was clearly needed. Finally, I believe that this volume is unique. At least I know of no other scholarly study of the development of the athletic and physical education program in a secondary school, certainly not one of this scope.

Ted Harrison had to face two major problems in the writing of this book. First of all he had to please two essentially disparate audiences. The first was the general reader with an interest in American secondary school education; the second was the Old Blues, who wanted a permanent record of their exploits in many a thrilling contest. Ted has, I think, solved this problem very effectively. The first eleven chapters of the book---roughly up to 1930---have been written primarily for the general reader and trace the development of the Andover program of athletics and physical education up to the time when the basic structure of the modern program was pretty well set. In the last four chapters, while new developments are not slighted, the focus shifts to an account of the many interesting interscholastic contests that Phillips Academy athletes have engaged in in the last fifty years---a section of the book that is sure to delight the Old Blues.

The second problem evolved from the fact that from the mid-1930's on, Ted Harrison played a tremendously important role in Andover athletics and physical education, first as an undergraduate and then from 1955 to 1977 as Director of Athletics. This has obviously inhibited him from passing judgments on his own career. For example, he cannot say that as an undergraduate he was the greatest baseball player, if not the greatest athlete, in the history of the school, but I can and do. Similarly, he cannot call his career as Director of Athletics "The Harrison Years," but I can and do. The reader should therefore realize that Ted Harrison's role in the history of athletics and physical education at Phillips Academy over the last fifty years has been played down in this account and make due allowance for that fact.

When this volume, Athletics for All, is read in conjunction with the two books on the history of Phillips Academy previously published, a student of American secondary school education can, I believe, gain an insight in several dimensions into the development of a great American independent school. I know of no other institution of its kind where such insight in depth is available.

Frederick S. Allis, Jr.
Andover, Massachusetts
November 1982



THIS HISTORY OF ATHLETICS at Phillips Academy was intended to be one of four volumes to be published in connection with the 200th birthday of Phillips Academy and the 150th Anniversary of Abbot Academy. After the merger of the two schools in 1973 it became apparent that it would be impossible to cover adequately all the events and activities of both schools in one volume; therefore, it was decided that a separate history for each of the two Academies be undertaken. It was further decided that the athletic and financial histories of Phillips Academy should be treated individually in separate volumes. This is the third of the original tetralogy, and carries through the merger to 1977. As a retiring Director of Athletics at the school for twenty-two years, and about to go on sabbatical leave for a year, I was commissioned by Headmaster Theodore S. Sizer to write the history of athletics at Phillips Academy.

When I look back at the lifestyle of Marge and Ted Harrison for the last five years, I am convinced that the author was temporarily insane to accept the assignment. Since we became deeply involved in the fundraising campaign for the 200th birthday party, little work was done on the actual writing of the book until the Harrisons returned to Andover in the fall of 1978. I offer this only as a partial excuse for its late publication; honi soit qui mal y pense!

The primary source of information for this volume is the archives in the library of Phillips Academy, which contain a complete file of school publications, the correspondence of various Headmasters, annual financial reports from the Treasurer's Office, school catalogs, Trustees' reports, and assorted memorabilia from alumni of many generations. However, special mention should be made of Holly Hobart, the Director of the Quincy, Massachusetts, Historical Society, whose resumé of the history of Adams Academy solved the problem of that school for me; and the contribution of Axel Bundgaard, athletic historian from St. Olaf College, whose paper, "Tom Brown Abroad," corroborated my convictions relative to the early origins of American football and baseball. Very special thanks go to my former teacher, John S. Barss, for his penetrating observations on fencing at Phillips Academy and to Hart D. Leavitt, my former coach, for his humorous contribution relative to early ice hockey coaching on Andover Hill. I am also grateful to Luanne Bates, P.A. 1981 and a former student of mine, for her term paper on the history of swimming at Phillips Academy; to Marjorie Stearns for substantiating many facts, particularly about her father's athletic career; and to Mrs. Robert E. Maynard and Christine Maynard for making the Stearns interview possible. I am more recently indebted to Joseph Pellegrino of the Phillips Academy class of 1956---neighbor, friend, and Andover parent---for the Winslow Homer print of early football at Harvard; to Richard Graber and Patrick Bissonnett for their help with the photographs; to my friend and former rival Daniel Stuckey of Exeter for obtaining the Amen and Chadwick photographs for me; and to Ann Parks for her assistance with the map of the campus. My special thanks go also to Lois Krieger of the Dartmouth College Library staff who consented to index this work. My deep appreciation goes to the many alumni, parents, and friends of the school who in conversation or in writing have conveyed to the author valuable insights on athletics at Andover in their day.

By way of explanation to the reader, two bibliographical footnotes must be considered. The early records of Andover teams in both intramural and interscholastic competition to 1920 are contained in Frank Quinby's Phillips Academy, Andover, on Diamond, Track and Field, multiple copies of which are in the Andover Collection of the Oliver Wendell Holmes Library. The modern records from 1920 to 1978 have been compiled and reproduced in limited numbers and will reside in the same Andover Collection, available to those interested. It would have been impossible to append these to the publication, with certain exceptions as noted in the body of the text. Along similar lines, the book is concerned primarily with the exploits of Andover's athletes when they were schoolboys and touches upon their college careers only incidentally. The author is well aware of the great athletic achievements of hundreds of Phillips Academy sons over the decades in the larger intercollegiate stadia. Again, however, time and space prohibited the inclusion of such additional memorabilia in this volume.

A word about footnotes. I have provided citations for practically every statement of fact in this volume. There is, however, one important exception to this policy. After the founding of the Phillipian, the school newspaper, in 1878, I found that I depended heavily on that publication, particularly in the middle chapters. In one chapter, for example, about 80% of the citations were to the Phillipian. It seemed wasteful to have long columns of footnotes, all referring to the same source. Accordingly, I determined to omit all citations to the paper, except for a few in the earlier chapters. The reader should understand, however, that whenever a statement of fact or a quotation is not cited, it means that the source is the Phillipian. The only complete file of the school newspaper that I know of is in the Oliver Wendell Holmes Library at Phillips Academy, where readers who wish to check me out may do so.

To put together an athletic anthology of this kind requires considerable assistance from many people. Aside from those recognized in the official documentation, I am particularly indebted to Frederick S. Allis, Jr., my friend and ex-colleague, former Chairman of the History Department, and my editor, whose support and encouragement have made the publication possible, and also to William H. Brown, another friend and colleague, former Chairman of the English Department, for his assistance in editing the text. Special thanks go to Frank DiClemente, my longtime able assistant in the Athletic Department, and to Alfred Colby, P.A. 1977, for their help in compiling the modern team records; to my loyal and efficient secretary, Marjorie Walsh, whose dedication and energy made the compilation possible; and to Alice Persichetti, secretary in the Phillips Academy Admissions Office, who is putting the records on a word processor. I owe a special debt of thanks to Head Librarians of the Oliver Wendell Holmes Library, Barbara McDonnell and Lynne Robbins, and their staffs for their inestimable cooperation and help over a four-year period; to archivists Ruth Quattlebaum and Juliet Kellogg, whose suggestions in resource material and illustrations have been invaluable; and to Tina Tabaco and Mary Clukey in the Treasurer's Office for handling so smoothly the finances relative to the book account. In another sense, I am deeply indebted to Melville Chapin, P.A. 1936, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Phillips Academy, for his permission to revive the project after it had been allowed to pall by the Office of Development after the Bicentennial and a subsequent change in the Administration at the school. It was difficult to work at times, when seemingly there was no clearly defined objective ahead. All praise is due to those two ladies most closely associated with the assembling of the volume: to Jennifer Boshar, my clairvoyant typist, who so aptly coped with my impossible handwriting; and the ultimate tribute to marvelous Marjorie, my indomitable wife, whose encouragement, understanding, and substantial writing contribution kept both the author and the book from foundering.

Finally, to presume to capture more than a glimpse of those stirring events which occurred on the athletic fields of Phillips Academy and elsewhere over a period of about two centuries is both awesome and pretentious. The heroes are myriad, the legends swell with age, imaginations expand as memories fade. To touch on all the incidents is impossible of attainment: many will be mentioned; some will be left out. So it must always be. Far more important than the chronicling of the winners and losers was the early emergence of a strong sense of pride and place among the Andover student body which fostered the athletic program and developed it into what it is today. In the beginning, then, all were heroes. To those alumni, faculty, and former athletes whose efforts helped to mold the Andover tradition, we are forever indebted.

This book honors those who played and those who coached: "See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, redeeming the time." It has been fun!

Andover, Massachusetts
October 1982

Chapter One